七个专业步骤 保障你的信息安全_欧宝app

本文摘要:There are more reasons than ever to understand how to protect your personal information.现在比过去任何时候都更加必须搞清楚如何维护你的个人信息。


There are more reasons than ever to understand how to protect your personal information.现在比过去任何时候都更加必须搞清楚如何维护你的个人信息。Major hacks seem ever more frequent. Investigators believe that a set of top-secret National Security Agency hacking tools were offered to online bidders this summer. 大规模的黑客攻击或许比以前更为频密了。调查人员坚信,一系列绝密国家安全性机构黑客工具在今年夏天被获取给了网上的竞拍者。

And many of those worried about expanded government surveillance by the N.S.A. and other agencies have taken steps to secure their communications.他们中有许多人对美国国家安全局(NSA)和其他政府机构不断扩大的监控深感忧虑,开始采取措施,确保自身的通信安全。In a recent Medium post, Quincy Larson, the founder of Free Code Camp, an open-source community for learning to code, detailed the reasons it might be useful for people to make their personal data more difficult for attackers to access. 自学编程的开源社区权利编程营(Free Code Camp)创始人昆西拉森(Quincy Larson)最近在Medium网站公开发表了一篇文章,详尽说明了为何人们将个人数据显得更难让袭击者取得是有益的。“When I use the term ‘attacker’ I mean anyone trying to access your data whom you haven’t given express permission to,” he wrote. “Whether it’s a hacker, a corporation, or even a government.”“这里的‘袭击者’,是指任何予以你的容许企图提供你的数据的人,”他写到。“不管它是黑客、企业,还是政府。

”In an interview, Mr. Larson walked us through some of the basic steps he recommended. We added a few of our own, based on additional interviews.在拒绝接受专访时,拉森给我讲解了一些他引荐的基本步骤。我们基于其他专访又加添了几条自己的建议。We encourage you to write back with feedback on this article. If the instructions are too vague, the apps aren’t working for you or you have additional questions, we want to hear about it. Send an email to smarterliving@nytimes.com.我们希望你就这篇文章写对系统发给我们。


Now, let’s encrypt.现在,让我们开始加密。1. Download Signal, or Start Using WhatsApp to send text messages.1.iTunesSignal,或用于WhatsApp发送到短信。Encryption is a fancy computer-person word for scrambling your data until no one can understand what it says without a key. But encrypting is more complex than just switching a couple of letters around.加密是一个矮小上的计算机术语,意思是对你的数据加以处置,直到没密钥就没有人能解读它为止。

但加密恨某种程度是对调几个字母那么非常简单。Mr. Larson said that by some estimates, with the default encryption scheme that Apple uses, “you’d have to have a supercomputer crunching day and night for years to be able to unlock a single computer.”拉尔森说道,据估计,用于苹果的配置文件加密方案,“你必需有一台超级计算机昼夜不时的运转很多年,才能关卡一台计算机。”He said that the best way to destroy data was not to delete it, because it could potentially be resurrected from a hard drive, but to encode it in “a secure form of cryptography.”他说道,封存数据的最佳方法是不移除数据,而是以“加密安全性形式”展开编码,因为移除的数据可以从硬盘驱动器里完全恢复。Signal is one of the most popular apps for those who want to protect their text messaging. It is free and extremely easy to use. And unlike Apple’s iMessage, which is also encrypted, the code it uses to operate is open-source.如果你想要维护自己的短信,Signal是人气最低的此类应用于之一。

它是免费的,非常容易用于。苹果的iMessage虽然也是能加密,但Signal用于的代码是开源的,这和iMessage有所不同。“You can be sure by looking at the code that they’re not doing anything weird with your data,” Mr. Larson said.“看一看代码,你就能确认他们没对你的数据做到过怪异的事情,”拉尔森说道。

“In general, the idea behind the app is to make privacy and communication as simple as possible,” said Moxie Marlinspike, the founder of Open Whisper Systems, the organization that developed Signal.“总的来说,这个应用于的点子是让隐私维护和交流尽量地非常简单,”研发出有Signal的公司对外开放耳语系统(Open Whisper Systems)的创始人什克西马林斯派克(Moxie Marlinspike)说道。That means that the app allows you to use emojis, send pictures and enter group texts.这意味著该应用于容许你用于颜文字、发送到图片和群发文字。One bit of friction: You do have to persuade your friends to join the service too, if you want to text them. The app makes that easy to do.有一个不利因素:如果想要给朋友们放讯息,就必需劝说他们也重新加入该服务使用者的行列。但它让这个过程显得很更容易。

WhatsApp, the popular chat tool, uses Signal’s software to encrypt its messaging. And in Facebook Messenger and Google’s texting app Allo, you can turn on an option that encrypts your messages.很热门的聊天工具WhatsApp用于Signal的软件为自己的通讯信息加密。在Facebook Messenger和谷歌(Google)的通讯应用程序Allo中,你可以落成为讯息加密的选项。Here’s how to do that on Facebook. Here’s how to do it on Allo. 页面这里查阅如何在Facebook上这样做到。


页面这里查阅如何在Allo上这样做到。Mr. Marlinspike said that the presidential election had sparked a lot of interested in Signal, leading to a “substantial increase in users.”马林斯派克说道,总统议会选举唤起了很多人对Signal的兴趣,造成“用户数量大幅度减少”。When asked to speculate why that was, Mr. Marlinspike simply said, “Donald Trump is about to be in control of the most powerful, invasive and least accountable surveillance apparatus in the world.”被问到个中原因时,马林斯派克非常简单地说,“唐纳德特朗普(Donald Trump)将要掌控世界上最不具影响力和侵略性、且最不有可能被问责的监控机构。”To download Signal, click here for iOS, or here for Android. 页面这里iTunesiOS版Signal,或者页面这里iTunes安卓版Signal。

2. Protect your computer’s hard drive with FileVault orBitLocker.2. 用FileVault或者BitLocker维护你的电脑硬件。Your phone may be the device that lives in your pocket, but Mr. Larson described the computer as the real gold mine for personal information.你也许总是把手机带在身边,但马林斯派克指出电脑才是确实的个人信息金矿。

Even if your data were password protected, someone who gained access to your computer “would have access to all your files if they were unencrypted.”即便你的数据受到密码保护,某个转入你电脑的人还是“可以看见你的所有文件,如果它们没被加密的话”。Luckily, both Apple and Windows offer means of automatic encryption that simply need to be turned on.幸运地的是,苹果和Windows都获取了自动加密工具,只需落成才可。Here’s the link to do that for Apple computers. Here’s the one for Windows computers. 页面这里为苹果电脑加密。

页面这里为用于Windows的电脑加密。3. The way you handle your passwords is probably wrong and bad.3. 你处置密码的方式有可能是错误而差劲的。

You know this by now. Changing your passwords frequently is one of the simplest things you can do to protect yourself from digital invasion. 现在你早已告诉了这一点。为了维护自己免受数码侵略,你能做到的最简单的事情之一就是经常替换密码。But making up new combinations all the time is a hassle.不过,不时地创立新的密码是一件麻烦事。

Mr. Larson recommends password managers, which help store many passwords, with one master password. He said that he uses LastPass, but knows plenty of people who use 1Password and KeePass, and that he doesn’t have a strong reason to recommend one over another. 拉尔森引荐用于可以协助留存很多密码,且只需忘记一个主密码的密码管理器。他说道自己用的是LastPass,但告诉很多人都在用1Password和KeePass,而他没什么强有力的理由来建议大家自由选择某一种而非另外两种。

Not every security expert trusts password managers. Some noted that LastPass itself got hacked last year.并非每个安全性专家都信任密码管理器。一些专家认为,LastPass本身去年就遭了侵略。So that means you may want to write them down in one secure location, perhaps a Post-it note at home. It seems more far-fetched that a hacker would bother to break into your home for a Post-it note than find a way into your computer.因此你也许想把密码写出在一个秘密的地方,或许是家里的一张即时贴上。

黑客更为没有可能为了设法转入你的电脑而费事闯入你家找寻一张即时贴。If you take that route, we suggest setting a weekly or biweekly calendar reminder to change your passwords.如果你使用这种方法,我们建议你在日历中原作每周一次或者每两周一次的替换密码任务警告。

As far as making passwords up goes: Don’t be precious about it. Use a random word (an object near you while you’re hunched over your Post-it) and a combination of numbers. If you’re writing passwords down, you don’t have to worry about making them memorable.至于密码的创立,建议你不要过分讲究。用于一个随机的词(例如当你凑近即时贴的时候,身旁的一个物件)再行再加一组数字。如果你不会把密码写出下来,就不用担忧如何才能让它们便于记忆了。


4. Protect your email and other accounts with two-factor authentication. 4. 用两步检验维护你的电子邮箱以及其他账号。When you turn this step on, anyone trying to sign in to your email from new devices will have to go through a secondary layer of security: a code to access the inbox that is sent to your phone via text message. (Though sadly, not through Signal.)当你落成这一功能时,任何企图在陌生设备上登岸你的邮箱的人,都必需通过两步检验:借以转入邮箱的验证码不会通过短信发送到你的手机上。

(失望的是,不是通过Signal。)Here’s the link for turning on two-factor authentication for Gmail accounts.页面这里查阅如何为Gmail帐号落成两步检验。

Here’s the one for Yahoo accounts, and here’s one you can use for Outlook accounts. 页面这里查阅如何为雅虎(Yahoo)帐号落成两步检验;页面这里查阅如何为Outlook帐号落成两步检验。You can also set two-factor authentication for social media accounts and other sites. But email is the most important account, since many sites use email for password recovery, a fact that has been exploited by hackers. Once they have access to your email, they can get access to banking, social media, data backups and work accounts.你还可以为社交媒体账号以及其他网站设置两步检验。但电子邮箱才是最重要的账号,因为很多网站都用电子邮箱展开密码恢复,黑客们早已在利用这一点了。

他们一旦转入你的邮箱,就可以攻下你的银行、社交媒体、数据备份和工作账号。5. Use a browser plug-in called HTTPS Everywhere.5. 用于一个名为HTTPS Everywhere的浏览器插件。Mr. Marlinspike recommended this plug-in, developed by the Electronic Frontier Foundation, a digital security organization. It ensures that you are accessing the secure form of websites, meaning that your connection to the site will be encrypted, and that you will be protected from various forms of surveillance and hacking.马林斯派克引荐的这个插件是由数字安全性机构电子前哨基金会(Electronic Frontier Foundation)研发的。它能保证你以安全性的方式采访网站。

这意味著你对网站的采访不会被加密,从而维护你免受各种形式的监控和侵略。Download HTTPS Everywhere for Chrome here. For Firefox here. 页面这里iTunesChrome版HTTPS Everywhere。页面这里iTunes火狐(Firefox)版HTTPS Everywhere。Here’s a list of FAQ’s about the plug-in, including whether it is available for other browsers. 页面这里查阅关于该插件的少见问题解答,还包括它否限于于其他浏览器。

And this is a good time to note that you should always be aware whether the Wi-Fi network you’re using is secure. Public networks — and even private networks without security keys — often are not.借此机会还要认为,你应当时时警觉自己用于的Wi-Fi网络否安全性。公共网络——乃至没安全性密匙的私人网络——一般来说并不安全性。6. Remember that incognito mode isn’t always private.6. 切记,伪装模式并非总能维护隐私。You may be in such a hurry to use this feature, available on Chrome, Safari and Firefox, among other browsers, that you do not heed its clear warning.你也许急匆匆地用于了这个在Chrome、Safari、火狐以及其他一些浏览器上都能看到的功能,却没注意到它收到的具体警告。

On Chrome, the second paragraph of the “incognito” home screen is clear.在Chrome上关上讲解“伪装”模式的页面,第二段写出得清清楚楚。“You aren’t invisible,” it says. “Going incognito doesn’t hide your browsing from your employer, your internet service provider, or the websites you visit.”“您的活动并非无法被察觉到,”那上面说道。

“用于伪装模式后,您的雇员、您的互联网服务提供商或者您采访的网站本身,还是可以查阅您的网站采访活动记录。”Mr. Larson recommended Tor in his article, a browser that allows for private web activity. But we’re not going to recommend that here, mostly because Tor is relatively slow and clunky at the moment.拉尔森在他的文章中引荐了Tor,一款让人以求展开偷窥网络活动的浏览器。

但我们在这里会做到这样的引荐,主要原因是Tor目前更为较慢和轻巧。“I’ll be honest, I don’t use it very often,” Mr. Larson said.“说老实话,我并没十分频密地用于它,”拉尔森说道。


He said that he suspected other browsers would start adding ways to browse more securely.他说道他预计其他浏览器也不会著手加到能让人更加安全性地网页网页的功能。“Apple is very security conscious,” he said. “I wouldn’t be surprised if they started to incorporate Tor-like features into Safari.”“苹果的安全意识十分强劲,”他说道。

“如果他们开始把类似于Tor的功能带入Safari,我一点儿也会深感吃惊。”7. Do sensitive searches in DuckDuckGo.7. 用DuckDuckGo展开更为脆弱的搜寻。Mr. Larson said that if people were paranoid about Google, he would strongly encourage them to use DuckDuckGo, an alternative search engine.拉尔森说道,如果有人对谷歌极为不安心,他不会强烈推荐他们用于另一款搜索引擎DuckDuckGo。He said however, that he personally, was not paranoid.不过他说道,他本人对谷歌并无偏见。

“Google is built on the hacker ethic and they have put principle above profits in some aspects,” he said.“谷歌的创立以黑客伦理为基础,他们在某些方面是把原则置放利润之上的,”他说道。But he also acknowledged that he meets “people all the time who are extremely skeptical of any large software organization and I think that’s reasonable.” There are trade-offs. Google’s search results are more useful and accurate than competitors’ precisely because of the ways it collects and analyzes information about its customers’ searches.但他也否认,他“经常”遇上“对所有大型软件的组织都心怀顾虑的人,而且我实在他们所持这种态度也是合情合理的”。


A Bonus: Cover your webcam with tape.附送锦囊一枚:用胶带遮住摄像头。That way, if someone has found a way to compromise your computer, they cannot spy on you through its camera.这样一来,即便有人以求侵略你的电脑,也无法通过电脑上的摄像头偷窥你。And yes, this happens.到底,这种事情不是没有再次发生过。

Happy encryption.千秋加密无聊。